As a whole, humans wish they could be happier and experience less stress.? Given what were learning, what are some of the thing

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 Please reply TO EACH discussion question with a 200-word minimum 
1)  As a whole, humans wish they could be happier and experience less stress.  Given what we’re learning, what are some of the things someone could do to decrease their level of stress and increase their level of happiness?  Consider using yourself (or friends and family members) to provide detailed examples and please be specific.
2) Which major approach to understanding personality (e.g., Psychodynamic, Learning, Biological, Trait) do you identify with the most?  In other words, which do you feel best represents how your personality was formed?  Why?  Please be specific and use examples if you can.
3) We learn about some of the major Psychological Disorders in Chapter 13.  Which disorder (or set of disorders) fascinated you most?  Why?  Try to connect the disorder to a character from a TV show or movie.  You do NOT need to discuss your personal experience with psychological disorders, but if someone chooses to, PLEASE be respectful!
4) Pick one of the major psychological disorders we learned about in Chapter 13 (it can be the one you wrote about in the Chapter 13 Discussion).  Given what we know about the different types of therapy and treatment, how would you go about treating the disorder?  Please be sure to explain your reasoning.  Do you feel this type of treatment is generally the best?  Why?  What could be an alternative method of therapy/treatment?  
5) We will often change the way we feel and the way we behave due to compliance or obedience, but sometimes, we’ll change as a result of no direct social pressure (i.e., we’ll conform).  After learning about how the social world can affect the way people think, feel, and behave, what did you find to be the most fascinating concept(s)?  Why?  Where have you seen this exemplified in your life?
Chapter13SlidesPresentationWI101.pdf
Chapter13SlidesPresentationWI101.pdf
PSY-101: Principles of Psychology
Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders
WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS?
● Abnormal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that cause people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives ○ Deviant
■ Different from what’s culturally expected ○ Distressful
■ Causes unwanted negative emotions ○ Dysfunctional
■ Biology or psychology isn’t functioning as expected
THE DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
● First edition from 1952 ● Currently in the 5th edition (revised in 2013) ● 237 diagnosable disorders
■ Nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life
THE CAUSES ● Is it supernatural forces?
○ E.g., Black magic, possession ● Is it biology?
○ E.g., Chemical imbalance, brain abnormality ● Is it environmental factors?
○ E.g., Childhood abuse, trauma
■ The Diathesis-Stress Model prevails! ○ A complex interaction between biology and environment
AN OVERVIEW OF WHAT WE’LL COVER…
● Anxiety Disorders ● Mood Disorders ● Schizophrenia ● Dissociative Disorders ● Personality Disorders ● “Childhood” Disorders
ANXIETY DISORDERS When anxiety occurs without logical external justification and begins to affect people’s daily functioning
Some major types ● Phobias ● Panic disorder ● Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) ● Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
PHOBIAS
ANXIETY DISORDERS Panic Disorder
● Usually have recurring panic attacks ● Anxiety suddenly rises to a peak and the person feels
a sense of impending, unavoidable doom
Generalized Anxiety Disorder ● Long-term, persistent, excessive, and uncontrollable
anxiety
ANXIETY DISORDERS Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ● Obsession
○ Persistent unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring
● Compulsion ○ Irresistible urges to repeatedly carry out some act that
may seem strange and unreasonable to others ○ Helps control anxiety stemming from the obsession
MOOD DISORDERS Major Depressive Disorder
● Severe form of depression that interferes with concentration, decision making, and sociability
Bipolar Disorder ● Periods of alternating mania (state of elation) &
depression ● Periods of depression are usually longer than manic
periods
COMORBIDITY OF OCD AND
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE
DISORDER ● 41% of people
diagnosed with OCD also qualify for a major depressive disorder diagnosis
SCHIZOPHRENIA Refers to a class of disorders in which a severe distortion of reality occurs
● Disturbances of thought ● Delusions ● Hallucinations ● Emotional disturbances
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Characterized by the separation of different facets of a person’s personality that are normally integrated and work together
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) ● Formerly multiple personality disorder ● Characteristics of two (or more) distinct personalities,
identities, or personality fragments ● Controversial diagnosis
PERSONALITY DISORDERS Characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriately in society (the DSM-5 recognizes 10 different personality disorders)
Antisocial Personality Disorder ● Show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society ● Lack guilt or anxiety about their wrongdoing ● Impulsive and lack the ability to withstand frustration ● Extremely manipulative & may have excellent social skills ● Commonly referred to as “psychopaths” or “sociopaths”
PERSONALITY DISORDERS Narcissistic Personality Disorder ● Characterized by an
exaggerated sense of self-importance
● Expect special treatment ● Have trouble experiencing
empathy for others

“CHILDHOOD” DISORDERS Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ● Marked by inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for
frustration, and generally a great deal of unexpected activity
Autism Spectrum Disorder ● Severe developmental disability that impairs children’s ability
to communicate and relate to others
A BETTER WAY OF VISUALIZING
THE AUTISM SPECTRUM
HELP ME BUILD A BETTER CLASS!
● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or remove from these slides?
● Could I ask better discussion questions for this topic? What are they?
Please use this google doc to share your feedback
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1VXnHrrQMs4Hh19Gi6j6ajXiLDmAXlEg4n-GKfRUwccI/edit?usp=sharing
The material for these slides was adapted from:
Introduction to Psychology An open-access text written and edited
by multiple individuals and organizations
Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA
Cover

,
PSY-101: Principles of Psychology
Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders
WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS?
● Abnormal thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that cause people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives ○ Deviant
■ Different from what’s culturally expected ○ Distressful
■ Causes unwanted negative emotions ○ Dysfunctional
■ Biology or psychology isn’t functioning as expected
THE DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
● First edition from 1952 ● Currently in the 5th edition (revised in 2013) ● 237 diagnosable disorders
■ Nearly half of all Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM disorder at some point in their life
THE CAUSES ● Is it supernatural forces?
○ E.g., Black magic, possession ● Is it biology?
○ E.g., Chemical imbalance, brain abnormality ● Is it environmental factors?
○ E.g., Childhood abuse, trauma
■ The Diathesis-Stress Model prevails! ○ A complex interaction between biology and environment
AN OVERVIEW OF WHAT WE’LL COVER…
● Anxiety Disorders ● Mood Disorders ● Schizophrenia ● Dissociative Disorders ● Personality Disorders ● “Childhood” Disorders
ANXIETY DISORDERS When anxiety occurs without logical external justification and begins to affect people’s daily functioning
Some major types ● Phobias ● Panic disorder ● Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) ● Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
PHOBIAS
ANXIETY DISORDERS Panic Disorder
● Usually have recurring panic attacks ● Anxiety suddenly rises to a peak and the person feels
a sense of impending, unavoidable doom
Generalized Anxiety Disorder ● Long-term, persistent, excessive, and uncontrollable
anxiety
ANXIETY DISORDERS Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ● Obsession
○ Persistent unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring
● Compulsion ○ Irresistible urges to repeatedly carry out some act that
may seem strange and unreasonable to others ○ Helps control anxiety stemming from the obsession
MOOD DISORDERS Major Depressive Disorder
● Severe form of depression that interferes with concentration, decision making, and sociability
Bipolar Disorder ● Periods of alternating mania (state of elation) &
depression ● Periods of depression are usually longer than manic
periods
COMORBIDITY OF OCD AND
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE
DISORDER ● 41% of people
diagnosed with OCD also qualify for a major depressive disorder diagnosis
SCHIZOPHRENIA Refers to a class of disorders in which a severe distortion of reality occurs
● Disturbances of thought ● Delusions ● Hallucinations ● Emotional disturbances
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS Characterized by the separation of different facets of a person’s personality that are normally integrated and work together
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) ● Formerly multiple personality disorder ● Characteristics of two (or more) distinct personalities,
identities, or personality fragments ● Controversial diagnosis
PERSONALITY DISORDERS Characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriately in society (the DSM-5 recognizes 10 different personality disorders)
Antisocial Personality Disorder ● Show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society ● Lack guilt or anxiety about their wrongdoing ● Impulsive and lack the ability to withstand frustration ● Extremely manipulative & may have excellent social skills ● Commonly referred to as “psychopaths” or “sociopaths”
PERSONALITY DISORDERS Narcissistic Personality Disorder ● Characterized by an
exaggerated sense of self-importance
● Expect special treatment ● Have trouble experiencing
empathy for others

“CHILDHOOD” DISORDERS Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ● Marked by inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for
frustration, and generally a great deal of unexpected activity
Autism Spectrum Disorder ● Severe developmental disability that impairs children’s ability
to communicate and relate to others
A BETTER WAY OF VISUALIZING
THE AUTISM SPECTRUM
HELP ME BUILD A BETTER CLASS!
● Do you think there are things I should edit, add, or remove from these slides?
● Could I ask better discussion questions for this topic? What are they?
Please use this google doc to share your feedback
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1VXnHrrQMs4Hh19Gi6j6ajXiLDmAXlEg4n-GKfRUwccI/edit?usp=sharing
The material for these slides was adapted from:
Introduction to Psychology An open-access text written and edited
by multiple individuals and organizations
Greg Mullin, 2022 – Licensed CC BY – SA
Cover

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Research a scholarly journal article on the biological and environmental factors that may impact the physical development of a

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Research a scholarly journal article on the biological and environmental factors that may impact the physical development of a child. Provide a brief summary of the article. Compare and contrast it to your course readings thus far. 
Research consistently shows that living in poverty negatively influences language development. Locate and summarize information that would support this assumption (e.g., journal articles, Centers for Disease Control [CDC], and/or World Health Organization [WHO]). What types of experiences or resources do you feel that children who live in poverty do not experience or receive but children from higher economic statuses benefit from? 
also i attached one student response to discussion  please respond to her post with 4 sentences.
no plagerism 
Student1responsetodiscussion.docx
Student 1 response to discussion
Research a scholarly journal article on the biological and environmental factors that may impact the physical development of a child. Provide a brief summary of the article. Compare and contrast it to your course readings thus far.
Zeng et al. (2019) studied the associations between heavy metal exposure and physical growth and development in Chinese children. 470 preschool-aged children from Guiyu, an electronic waste exposure area, and Haojiang, the control area, were tested with physical exams and a blood test to measure their birth length and weight, height, weight, body mass index, head circumference, and chest circumference. Their blood was tested for levels of lead, cadmium, chromium, and manganese (Zeng et al., 2019). The results indicated that children in Guiyu had significantly lower birth weights and lengths, body mass indices, and chest circumference. Blood lead levels were also negatively correlated with height, weight, body mass index, head circumference, and chest circumference. Levels of cadmium, chromium, and manganese were not associated with any physical developmental outcomes (Zeng et al., 2019).
Multiple studies have linked high blood lead levels to negative developmental outcomes. The effects of lead exposure can include poor physical outcomes, as demonstrated by Zeng et al. (2019), as well as lower intelligence, lower school achievement, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and high blood pressure (Santrock et al., 2021). Lead exposure damages the brain and nervous system, which then leads to slowed growth and development, learning and behavior problems, and possible hearing and speech problems as well (Santrock et al., 2021).
Research consistently shows that living in poverty negatively influences language development. Locate and summarize information that would support this assumption (e.g., journal articles, Centers for Disease Control [CDC], and/or World Health Organization [WHO]). What types of experiences or resources do you feel that children who live in poverty do not experience or receive but children from higher economic statuses benefit from?
One way that living in poverty negatively influences language development is, again, through lead exposure. Children in poverty are at an elevated risk for lead poisoning compared to their peers in higher socioeconomic households (Santrock et al., 2021). This is because most lead exposure comes from swallowing house dust or soil contaminated by lead paint. Children living in poverty are more likely to live in older, unrenovated houses that still have lead paint and lead pipes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2021). Households in poverty are also more likely to live in less desirable areas, such as near industrial sites, where children may be exposed to dust from soil with lead from leaded gasoline, aviation fuel, mining, or industries (CDC, 2021). Lead can affect language development by lowering IQ, lowering the ability to focus, slowing development, and causing hearing and speech problems (CDC, 2021).
Children in poverty also may not have access to experiences and resources to assist with language development such as books in the household or a person to consistently read to them. Low-income children are exposed to less language overall and less of the language that promotes school readiness and academic achievement (Santrock et al., 2021). In one study, parents on welfare talked less to their young children, talked less about past events, and provided less elaboration that parents who were professionals (Hart & Risley, (1995); in Santrock et al., 2021). In addition, low-income children may not have access to early intervention services that their wealthier peers might be able to obtain, such as speech therapy, doctor visits, and specialist interventions (Santrock et al., 2021).
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, October 27). Prevent children’s exposure to
lead. National Center for Environmental Health. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/leadpoisoning/index.html
Santrock, J. W., Deater-Deckard, K., & Lansford, J. E. (2021). Child development. (15th ed.).
McGraw-Hill Education.
Zeng, X., Xu, X., Qin, Q., Ye, K., Wu, W., & Huo, X. (2019). Heavy metal exposure has adverse
effects on the growth and development of preschool children. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 41, 309-321.
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Student finalizes writing the methods section and proposed statistical analyses for the research study. Upload the drafts to th

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 Student finalizes writing the methods section and proposed statistical analyses for the research study. Upload the drafts to the DMS. • Other committee members provide their feedback for the student uploaded via the DMS within 7-10 days • Scheduling the Teleconference of the Oral Dissertation Proposal defense for the student and the entire committee no later than Friday of Module 6 of a session. Student responds to feedback on the dissertation from the Director of the school of psychology • Completed written dissertation proposal is between 25-30 pages in length excluding the cover page, references page and appendices 
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The Piaget Investigation Assignment will provide you with a hands-on experience of looking at the differences between children’

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The Piaget Investigation Assignment will provide you with a hands-on experience of looking at the differences between children’s cognitive development as they experience life and mature in age. During the observation, you will compare and contrast two young children (ages 3-7) and their developmental skills and abilities.
Tasks:
Open and read the Instructions completely and carefully BEFORE attempting the assignment
Open the Piagetian Investigation form
Complete the observation and assignment portions
Upload the final product through this assignment portal; Screenshots will be allowed for form and pictures
P/s: the files are attached below.
.
CDEV107PiagetianInvestigationAssignment21.pdf
PiagetianInvestigationsAssignmentForm1.pdf
PIAGETIAN INVESTIGATIONS
After reviewing your book and the videos (provided in this document), you have learned about Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development. For this assignment, you will investigate the experiments that Piaget once performed with children in order to demonstrate the mental (cognitive) changes they undergo through preschool, elementary, and middle school. It is quite amazing to see children’s thinking style gradually become more logical and organized as they enter the next stage. Sometimes we see young children capable of certain skills but wonder why they are unable to grasp certain issues or behave in certain ways. Watching these experiments will help you understand that children are often incapable of thinking in certain ways, not because they are not smart, but because their brains have not developed quite yet in certain ways. Piaget noted that children in pre-operational stage are incapable of focusing on two aspects at one time. You will see this in your investigations!
That’s right! Now, you will be performing the following investigations! In this assignment, you will observe two children within the ages of 3 to 7 years old. Child #1 needs to be in the 3-5 age range and child #2 needs to be in the 6 to 7 age range. This will allow you to truly see the differences in development. This is going to be one of the most fun assignments you have ever done in school! In the packet you have been provided videos of other researchers doing these experiments to help you understand these investigations of cognitive thinking. Be sure to watch the videos so that you can accurately perform the experiments.
**Please do not use the child’s name, but refer to them as Child #1 and child #2. DIRECTIONS:
All the steps for this project will be written in red. Be sure to follow them.
STEP 1: Read through this entire document – all the way through – so that you get an idea of what you will be doing for this project. The student who doesn’t do this usually fails to turn in the proper work. Trust me. Read through the entire document now.
STEP 2: Read the definitions and watch the videos provided for you, in this document for each of the experimental tasks. This will take about 30 minutes but will be hugely beneficial. Most of these videos are EXACTLY what you will be doing in this assignment.
Conservation
Definition: The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e. is conserved) even when its appearance changes. Source: Berger, K. 2012. The Developing Person: Through Childhood and Adolescence. NY: Worth Publishers. p. 259.
You Tube Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnArvcWaH6I (exactly what you will be doing! Watch and learn!!)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o (Great example of children with different thinking)
Classification Definition: The logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common. Source: Berger, K. 2012. The Developing Person: Through Childhood and Adolescence. NY: Worth Publishers. p. 352.
You Tube Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHR0-FIl8Yg (watch part w/ Legos, similar to what you will be doing) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0hcaik-x_w (almost exactly what we will be doing, ours is better!)
Seriation
Definition: the knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical series. Source: Berger, K. 2012. The Developing Person: Through Childhood and Adolescence. NY: Worth Publishers. p. 352.
You Tube Videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOorUw_XX2o (great example)
Morality
Definition: principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. Source: “morality.” In oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/mo rality.
STEP 3: The Investigation. You will now observe two children (between the ages of 3 and 7 years old). Read the following techniques before you begin your investigation with these children. You will need to make a copy of the Piagetian Investigation Form (attached to the assignment in Blackboard). Be sure to have all of the materials needed before you begin you work with the children. It is best to have a quiet space where it is just you and the child and nothing can interrupt the experiments.
There are certain techniques which must be followed in order to obtain optimal efficiency.
1. Do not continue the investigations over a long period of time; ten or fifteen minutes at the most are long enough for to have a child do these activities. When you see signs of restlessness, discontinue your investigation.
2. Let the child think for him/herself. Give the child plenty of time, do not rush. Let him/her work out his/her own solutions to the problems.
3. Let him/her perform for him/herself whatever actions are called for (pouring, sorting, etc). 4. Ask precise, direct questions that do not influence the child’s answers. Even your tone can give a clue in some cases, so try to be as noncommittal as possible.
Section I. Conservation Investigation
For the conservation investigation, you will be doing three experiments: (A. Glasses, B. Chopsticks, and C. Graham Crackers)

Materials Needed: A. Glasses Experiment:
1. 2 glasses filled with the same amount of colored water (example: one red, one yellow) 2. Tall narrow jar
B. Chopsticks Experiment 1. Two chopsticks
C. Graham Crackers Experiment 1. Graham crackers
Procedure for Experiments:
A. Glasses Experiment:
1. Put the two glasses filled with colored water in front of the child. Make sure they have the same amount of liquid in each glass.
2. Ask child if both glasses have the same amount of water or if one has more or the other has more. If child agrees they are the same….
3. Pour the water from one of those glass into a differently shaped tall glass 4. Ask whether the two glasses now contain the same amount of water or does this one have
more or does this one have more (pointing to each) 5. Wait for child to respond. When they give you their answer, ask the child, “how come?” or
“why do you think this one has more?” 6. Document all answers down on paper 7. Remember to tell the child they are doing great
B. Chopstick Experiment: 1. Place the chopsticks in front of the child parallel to one another like this:
2. Ask child if both chopsticks are the same size or if one is longer or the other is longer. If child agrees they are the same….
3. Move one chopstick to the right so that they look like this:
4. Ask the child if the chopsticks are now the same or is this one longer or is this one longer? 5. Wait for child to respond. When they give you their answer, ask the child, “how come?” or
“why do you think this one has more?” 6. Document all answers down on paper 7. Remember to tell the child they are doing great
C. Graham Cracker Experiment 1. Break one graham cracker in half (in front of the child) and place the two squares in front
of you. Have an existing half ready for the child and place it in front of him/her. So at this point, you have two halves and she/he has one half.
2. Ask child if you both have the same amount of graham crackers in front of each other. If child agrees they are the same ask him or her to count the cracker in front of him and in front of you? Once the child says, they are not the same….
3. Break the half in front of the child into two quarters. 4. Ask the child now, do we have the same, or do you have more or do I have more? 5. Wait for child to respond. When they give you their answer, ask the child, “how come?” or
“why do you think this one has more?” 6. Document all answers down on paper 7. Remember to tell the child they are doing great
Section II. Classification Investigation
Materials Make sure the following shapes are as large as the palm of your hand – clearly cut and visible
8 circles (two each of red, green, blue and yellow) 5 triangles (two of red, one green, one blue and one yellow) C. 5 squares (two red, one blue, one yellow, one green)
Procedure:
1. Spread the shapes on a table in no particular order, but all should be plainly visible. 2. Place a blue circle and a blue square on one side of the table, “These two go together because
they’re the same in some way.”
3. Ask the child to “Put together things that are the same on one side of the table, put all different things on the other side of the table.” Additional instructions may be given such as: “Put them here if they’re the same, over there if they’re different from this one but the same as each other.”
4. If the child has classified in one way, ask if he can put them together in another way so that all the things are the same.
Possibly the younger child will not be able to classify, but whatever he does, ask for an explanation as to why the things put together are alike. What is his rationale for forming classes? Remember to tell the child that he or she is doing a great job! If they can’t do the classification, move to making sure they feel good about the task and maybe ask what shape it is or what color the shape is, just for the sure fact of making them feel good about their time with you.
Section III: Seriation
Materials: 1 set of colored shapes (same color) of different sizes (squares or triangles are best) Remember that these shapes are the same color, just different sizes. You should have at least 5 of them
Procedure:
1. Spread the cards on the table 2. Arrange five in the correct order from small to large 3. Ask child: “Can you make a row exactly like mine?” 4. Ask child to explain what they have done. 5. Remember to compliment the child on their work with you
Section IV: Morality For this section, there will be two stories.
Procedure:
Say, “I am going to tell you a story about two boys.” Story A:
A boy wanted a cookie even though his mother said he mustn’t have any so close to dinner time. The boy went and snuck a cookie anyway. When he did, he knocked over one of his mother’s best cups and broke it. (Pause) A boy wanted to help his mother by clearing the dishes off of the table. So he took a tray and loaded lots and lots of cups on it. When he tried to carry the big load of cups to the kitchen sink, he dropped them. Every last one of them broke. Ask: “Which boy was naughtier? (badder) “Why?”
Procedure: Say, “This next story is about being honest. Would you like to hear it?”
Story B: A girl came home from school and told her mother that a great pink kitty cat as big as an elephant had chased her home from school. A girl made a tear in one of her mother’s magazines. When the mother asked her if she’d torn the magazine, the girl said she hadn’t.
Ask: “Which girl told the worse lie?” “Why was it worse?”
Section V: Reflection
Create a one page reflection describing your experience observing these children. Your report should be prepared using a 12 point font (Times New Roman, Ariel or Calibri). You may use the following questions as a guide for your reflection. What did you learn from this assignment? What have you learned about observing the differences in children’s development? In what ways were the children different in their problem solving? Did the children perform as Piaget would have predicted? What questions do you have about observing children or how their development reflects their biological or environmental influences? What can you conclude about young children’s thinking? In what ways were you impressed with these children’s problem solving? In what ways was their thinking limited?
Section VI. Evidence of Observation Include evidence of your work through pictures of your materials. Either upload the actual picture or insert screenshots at the end of the report.
STEP 4: The Report.
 Type your Name, Course Name, and Date in the heading of the form.
 Complete the Piagetian Investigation Form (found under assignments on Blackboard).
Be sure to write down everything that was said, both by you and by the child. Please write down
EVERYTHING the child said in response to your questions. Please do not use the child’s name, but
refer to them as Child #1 and child #2.
 Complete the Reflection portion on the form.
 Include pictures of all materials at the end of the form.
 View the grading rubric before completing your assignment.
 Upload the final product through the appropriate assignment portal in blackboard.
This assignment was originally developed by Professor Valdez and modified by Professor Naman. Modified: April 24, 2016
,
1 HD 107 Human Development Prof Naman
Piagetian Investigation Form (This form should be copied and turned in with reflection, write directly on this form)
You will observe 2 children (different age categories) on each of the exercises. Follow the directions in the Piagetian Assignment Packet. Record the children’s responses on this form. Observe each child separately. READ the entire assignment document before attempting this assignment. Section I. Conservation Investigation
Conservation Exercise of Liquids Directions given to child by observer (exact wording): Age of child Two identical glasses Two glasses of different sizes ___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
Chopsticks Exercise Directions given to child by observer (exact wording): Two rows of chopsticks same
distance apart Two rows of chopsticks; one row more to the right
___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
Graham Cracker Exercise Directions given to child by observer (exact wording): Two squares in front of you; one half
in front of child Broken half of child’s square in front of them
___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
2 HD 107 Human Development Prof Naman
Section II. Classification Investigation
Classification Exercise Age of child Follow procedures 1-4 in assignment packet. Report the child’s response and
explanation as to why they put the items together. ___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
Section III. Seriation Investigation
Seriation Exercise Age of child Follow procedures 1-4 in assignment packet. Report the child’s response and
explanation as to why they put the items together. ___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
Section IV. Morality Investigation
Morality Exercise Age of child Story A Story B ___ Child #1 (3-5 yrs) Response
___ Child #2 (6-7 yrs) Response
Observer’s Comments:
3 HD 107 Human Development Prof Naman
Section V. Reflection Provide a one page reflection describing your experience observing these children. What did you learn from this assignment? What have you learned about observing the differences in children’s development? In what ways were the children different in their problem solving? Did the children perform as Piaget would have predicted? What questions do you have about observing children or how their development reflects their biological or environmental influences? What can you conclude about young children’s thinking? In what ways were you impressed with these children’s problem solving? In what ways was their thinking limited? Section VI. Evidence of Observation Include pictures of all your materials (screenshots will be accepted)
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Using CogLab information is attached, perform the signal detection experiment and create a report on the experiment. In your r

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Using CogLab(information is attached, perform the signal detection experiment and create a report on the experiment.
In your r eport, write a brief introduction that describes the SDT. Next, in the Methods section, describe the process that you followed to complete the experiment. In addition, include detailed information about the visual displays. Make sure to include enough information so that others could also perform the same experiment successfully.
Finally, in the Results section, describe the experimental results for the three different sized fields. Summarize your r eport, including answers to the following questions:
Were the results in accordance with your expectations? Provide a rationale to support your answer.
Did anything about the experiment surprise you? If yes, what?
What factors can influence the results of the signal detection experiment?
Coglab_CD1.zip
CogLabInformation.html.zip
ApplicationsofSDT.html.zip
SU_PSY3002_Signal_Detection1.pdf
SDTAvoidingResponseBias.html1.zip
Coglab_Mac/CogLab.jar
META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
Manifest-Version: 1.0 Created-By: 1.5.0_06 (Apple Computer, Inc.) Main-Class: CogLab
AbsoluteIdentification.class
public synchronized class AbsoluteIdentification extends java.awt.Canvas implements java.awt.event.KeyListener, Runnable, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; int NUMREPS; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; String version; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; String[] responseKeys; int response; int correct; int thisTrial; int[][] oo; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; boolean practiceDone; boolean trialDone; boolean responsePeriod; java.awt.Image icon; java.applet.AudioClip[] theClip; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void AbsoluteIdentification(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void AbsoluteIdentification(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
ApparentMotion.class
public synchronized class ApparentMotion extends java.awt.Canvas implements Runnable, java.awt.event.KeyListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; int stimulusSize; int ISI; int currentTrialIndex; String host; int numTrials; String[] responseKeys; java.awt.Image icon; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; boolean notDone; boolean threadStopped; boolean startedLoop; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void ApparentMotion(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void ApparentMotion(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
AttentionalBlink.class
public synchronized class AttentionalBlink extends java.awt.Canvas implements java.awt.event.KeyListener, Runnable, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; String[] letters; boolean allDone; boolean discardTrial; boolean validTrial; int numTrials; java.awt.Image icon; CLUserTransfer CLUT; String[] responseKeys; java.applet.Applet demoApp; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void AttentionalBlink(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void AttentionalBlink(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public String[] BuildStimulus(CLTrial); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void RunATrial(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
BlankCanvas.class
synchronized class BlankCanvas extends java.awt.Canvas { void BlankCanvas(); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); }
BlindSpot.class
public synchronized class BlindSpot extends java.awt.Canvas implements Runnable, java.awt.event.KeyListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; long markTime; boolean trialDone; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; String[] responseKeys; java.awt.Image icon; int numRow; int numCol; int dotSize; boolean drawFinal; double shiftX; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void BlindSpot(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void BlindSpot(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public java.awt.Image BuildStimulus(CLTrial); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
BrainAsymmetry.class
public synchronized class BrainAsymmetry extends java.awt.Canvas implements Runnable, java.awt.event.KeyListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; java.awt.Dimension imageSize; int currentTrialIndex; String host; int numTrials; String[] responseKeys; java.awt.Image icon; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; boolean gotResponse; java.awt.Image[] Faces; int numFaces; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void BrainAsymmetry(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void BrainAsymmetry(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
BrownPeterson.class
public synchronized class BrownPeterson extends java.awt.Canvas implements Runnable, java.awt.event.KeyListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; java.util.Random randGen; Thread animate; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; String[] letters; int numTrials; String[] responseKeys; java.awt.Image icon; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; boolean zeroPresent; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; int RSVPtime; boolean validTrial; boolean RIOver; String[] RealWords; String[] NonWords; int[] actualDistractorOrder; int[] reportedDistractorOrder; int responseCount; int numReplications; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void BrownPeterson(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void BrownPeterson(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public String BuildStimulus(); public String[] BuildDistractor(int); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
CLExperiment.class
public abstract interface CLExperiment { public abstract LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
CLFrame.class
public synchronized class CLFrame extends CloseableFrame implements java.awt.event.ActionListener { java.awt.MenuItem count; java.awt.MenuBar menubar; java.awt.Menu menu; ChangeResponseKeys changeKeys; java.awt.Image icon; public void CLFrame(String, java.awt.Image); public void CLFrame(String); public void VaryResponseKeys(String, String, String[], String[], String[], boolean); public static void main(String[]); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.ActionEvent); public void windowClosing(java.awt.event.WindowEvent); }
CLIntroductions.class
public synchronized class CLIntroductions extends java.awt.Dialog implements java.awt.event.ActionListener, java.awt.event.KeyListener { boolean doExperiment; java.awt.TextField[] names; boolean startedEntry; public void CLIntroductions(java.awt.Frame, String, String, String); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.ActionEvent); public java.net.URL GetIntroductionURL(String); }
CLMakeHTML.class
public synchronized class CLMakeHTML { String dataDisclaimer; String tail; String ExplanationDirectory; public void CLMakeHTML(); public String GetExplanation(CLResults); public String GetDataHTML(CLResults); public String GetDataHTMLWithPlot(CLResults, String); public StringBuffer MakeCLResultsPlotTable(CLResults); public StringBuffer MakeCLResultsDataTable(CLResults); public StringBuffer MakeTBTHTML(CLResults); public void SaveToHTML(CLResults, java.io.File); }
CLResults.class
public synchronized class CLResults implements java.io.Serializable { String[] versionNames; int versionIndex; java.util.Date date; String TimeZoneName; CLSummary Summary; private static final long serialVersionUID = -8878142205894788930; String TBTSummary; String[] TBTHeaders; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; java.awt.Point[] TrialsDisplayOrder; byte[] pngImage; int num; boolean PlotUpdated; boolean saveGlobal; boolean SavedAsCogLabData; String LabName; String FirstName; String LastName; String lastDirectory; String lastFileName; public static final int SCONDITIONS = 0; public static final int DCONDITIONS = 1; public static final int SRESPONSES = 2; public static final int DRESPONSES = 3; void CLResults(String, int, String[], String, String, String[], java.util.Vector, java.awt.Point[], CLSummary, String, String); public java.awt.Image MakePlot(); public void ShowResults(); }
CLResultsViewer.class
public synchronized class CLResultsViewer extends CloseableFrame implements java.awt.event.ActionListener { CLResults results; String lastDir; String lastFileName; javax.swing.JScrollPane[] scrollPanes; javax.swing.JEditorPane[] htmlPanes; javax.swing.JTabbedPane tabbedPane; ImagePanel plotPanel; public void CLResultsViewer(CLResults); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.ActionEvent); public void windowClosing(java.awt.event.WindowEvent); public void CheckToCloseWindow(); public void SaveInCogLabFormat(); }
CLSummary.class
public synchronized class CLSummary implements java.io.Serializable { String SummaryHeader; int numLines; int[] numData; double[][] xdata; double[][] ydata; String[][] sdata; String[] LineNames; double[][] xSquare; double[][] ySquare; boolean showPlot; boolean showLegend; String xLabel; String yLabel; double xMin; double xMax; double yMin; double yMax; boolean computeLimits; void CLSummary(String, int, int[], double[][], double[][], String[][], String[]); public void setPlot(String, String, boolean, double, double, double, double); public void setPlot(String, String, boolean); public void computePlotLimits(); }
CLTrial.class
public synchronized class CLTrial implements java.io.Serializable { String[] SConditions; String[] SResponses; double[] DResponses; double[] DConditions; public void CLTrial(); }
CLUser.class
public synchronized class CLUser implements java.io.Serializable { String Name; String UserID; String Password; java.util.Vector LabNameDone; boolean Registered; String RegistrationCode; java.util.Date dateRegistered; java.util.Date lastAccessed; java.util.Date dateCreated; String TimeZoneName; void CLUser(String, String); public boolean equals(CLUser); public void UpdateLabNameDone(CLResults); }
CLUserTransfer.class
public synchronized class CLUserTransfer implements java.io.Serializable { CLUser user; String GroupID; int task; String Comment; String Misc; String Misc2; CLResults results; static final int VERIFYUSERDATA = 0; static final int CHANGEUSERDATA = 1; static final int REGISTERACCOUNT = 2; static final int ADDRESULTS = 3; static final int GETGROUPRESULTS = 4; static final int GETUSERINFO = 5; static final int GETUSERRESULTS = 6; static final int GETGROUPTBT = 7; static final int LOOKUPINFO = 9; static final int MAKEGROUPHTML = 11; static final int GETGLOBALAVERAGES = 12; static final int MAKENEWUSER = 13; static final int SHOWPRINTABLEHTML = 14; boolean dataApproved; String fileName; void CLUserTransfer(CLUser, String, int, String); }
CategoricalPerception.class
public synchronized class CategoricalPerception extends java.awt.Panel implements Runnable, java.awt.event.ActionListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; String[] versionNames; int VersionIndex; Thread animate; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; java.awt.Image icon; int NUM_REPS; int NUM_STIM; int NUM_TRIALS; java.awt.Button BaButt; java.awt.Button PaButt; java.awt.Button NextTrial; java.awt.Button SkipButt; boolean accessDone; java.util.Random randGen; java.applet.AudioClip[] theClip; java.util.Date when; long then; int[] responses; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void CategoricalPerception(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void CategoricalPerception(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.ActionEvent); public void ranArray(int, int[]); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
CategoricalPerception2.class
public synchronized class CategoricalPerception2 extends java.awt.Panel implements Runnable, java.awt.event.ActionListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; String[] versionNames; int VersionIndex; Thread animate; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String groupID; String userName; java.awt.Image icon; int NUM_REPS; int NUM_STIM; int NUM_TRIALS; java.awt.Button SameButt; java.awt.Button DiffButt; java.awt.Button NextTrial; java.awt.Button SkipButt; boolean accessDone; java.util.Random randGen; java.applet.AudioClip[] theClip; java.util.Date when; long then; int[] responses; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void CategoricalPerception2(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void CategoricalPerception2(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); public void RunATrial(); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.ActionEvent); public void ranArray(int, int[]); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
ChangeDetection.class
public synchronized class ChangeDetection extends java.awt.Canvas implements Runnable, java.awt.event.KeyListener, CLExperiment { boolean release; int NUM_PHOTOS; java.awt.MediaTracker imageTracker; CLFrame frame; String LabName; java.util.Vector TrialsToGo; java.util.Vector TrialsDone; CLTrial currentTrial; Thread animate; java.util.Random randGen; java.awt.Dimension canvasSize; int currentTrialIndex; String host; String userID; String userPassword; String userName; String groupID; java.awt.Image image3; java.awt.Image image1; java.awt.Image image2; boolean gotResponse; boolean waitingForAResponse; String[] responseKeys; java.util.Date now; long markTime; int cond; boolean stimulusDone; int VersionIndex; String[] versionNames; java.awt.Image icon; CLUserTransfer CLUT; java.applet.Applet demoApp; String FirstName; String LastName; CLResults results; public void ChangeDetection(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image, java.applet.Applet); public void ChangeDetection(String, String, java.awt.Image, boolean); public void setup(String, CLUserTransfer, java.awt.Image); public void DefineTrials(); public static void main(String[]); void load_images(String, String); public void paint(java.awt.Graphics); public void start(); public void stop(); public void run(); public void RunATrial(); public void keyPressed(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyReleased(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void keyTyped(java.awt.event.KeyEvent); public void ranArray(int, int[]); public void OutputData(java.util.Vector); public LabProperties getLabInfo(); }
ChangeResponseKeys.class
public synchronized class ChangeResponseKeys extends HideableFrame implements java.awt.event.ActionListener, java.awt.event.KeyListener { String[] OriginalKeys; String[] CurrentKeys; java.awt.TextField[] fields; String[] disallowedKeys; public void ChangeResponseKeys(String, String, String[], String[], String[], boolean); public void actionPerformed(java.awt.event.Action
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You work for a surgical equipment manufacturing company. You are part of a design team developing a new machine to monitor patient heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and blood oxygen levels. Each function should have both visual displays and auditory cues.
Describe your design in detail. How would you use vision and auditory perception principles to develop an effective system? Remember to include warning signals!
AuditoryPerception.html.zip
VisionPerceptionDefectsinColorPerception.html.zip
VisionPerception.html.zip
Auditory Perception.html
Auditory Perception
Before we talk about the auditory system, we need to understand a few things about the nature of sound. Sound is simply vibration that travels through some medium. For humans, that medium is usually air.
Measurable attributes of sound waves include length (measured in Hertz [Hz]) and amplitude (measured in decibels [dB]).
How can we tell from where sounds are coming?
When an object makes a sound, the sound waves reach our ears at slightly different times and at slightly different intensities. These interaural time and intensity differences allow us to determine the location of the sound. If there are little or no time and intensity differences, it is difficult to determine the location. For example, if a sound is coming from directly behind, above, or in front of us, it will be difficult to determine where it is coming from, because there are no time and intensity differences between the ears. What can you do to create differences in such situations?
    Additional Material
      View the PDF transcript for  How We Hear
media/transcripts/SU_PSY3001_Hearing.pdf
Page 1 of 1 SU_PSY3001_Cognitive © 2009 South University
How We Hear Sound energy reaching the ear must be changed into neuronal messages before it can be further processed in the brain.
Hair cells in the cochlea are the site of transduction. A sound wave enters the outer ear, travels through the middle ear, and arrives at the entrance of the cochlea, which is filled with fluid.
Hair cells are embedded in the basilar membrane and move back and forth in response to sound waves. The inner hair cells change the sound energy into neuronal messages.
Different areas of the basilar membrane analyze different frequencies of sound. Hearing damage occurs when inner hair cells are damaged and can no longer change sound energy into neuronal messages. Exposure to intense sound is the leading cause of hearing loss, but various drugs and environmental toxins can also destroy hair cells.
Neuronal messages leave the cochlea via the auditory nerve and travel to the auditory cortex located in the temporal lobe.
Neurons in the auditory cortex are specialized in perceiving frequency, a change in frequency, speech sounds (possibly), and binaural disparity (which contributes to the ability to localize sounds). Similar to the retinotopic map in the PVC, there is a map of the basilar membrane in the auditory cortex. Specific parts of the cortex analyze information from specific parts of the basilar membrane. Hearing impairments can occur from damage at any point along the auditory perception pathway, not just in the cochlea.
The maximum volume on MP3 players can exceed 100 dB, which can cause hearing damage over a period of time. People tend to increase the volume when listening in a noisy environment such as subways, and surveys show that young people frequently listen at maximum levels. There has been an increase in permanent hearing damage in young people, and it is even becoming a public health issue. When hair cells are exposed to high levels of sound on a regular basis, they become less resilient and eventually die. Hair cells do not regrow, and when enough hair cells are damaged, speech perception is impaired. Save your hearing and turn down the volume the next time you listen to an MP3 player!
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Vision Perception Defects in Color Perception.html
Vision Perception: Defects in Color Perception
Pigment in the cones allows us to see color, and lack of pigments leads to color blindness. There are other causes of color blindness, but problems due to pigments are the most common.
Some people cannot accurately perceive color. In addition, with age, the lens yellows and color perception changes. Therefore, any sign or device to be used by the public should not rely entirely on color for important instructions or distinctions. Also, critical information should be placed near the center of the visual field so as to take advantage of the photoreceptors’ ability to process details.
    Additional Material
     View the PDF transcript for  Types of Color Blindness
media/transcripts/SU_PSY3001_Color_Blindness.pdf
Page 1 of 1 SU_PSY3001_Cognitive © 2009 South University
Types of Color Blindness
Color blindness is genetic and is carried on the X chromosome. As women have two X chromosomes, a normal gene on one X chromosome compensates for a defective gene on the other X chromosome. But because men have a single X chromosome (XY), color blindness is more prevalent in men than in women. Most cases of color blindness involve the absence of red or green cones.
Normal: People with normal vision have red, green, and blue cones.
Protanopia: People with protanopia do not have red cones.
Deuteranopia: People with deuteranopia do not have green cones.
Tritanopia: People with tritanopia cannot distinguish blues and yellows.
Achromatopsia: It is a rare vision disorder in which people do not perceive color at all. Their cones are not functional, which also means they can neither see much detail nor see well in daylight. Oliver Sacks wrote a book titled Island of the Colorblind that investigated people on a small Micronesian island where achromatopsia affects about 5 percent of the population.
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Vision Perception.html
Vision Perception
Damage along any part of the visual pathway can affect vision even if the eye itself is normal.
When you view an object with both eyes, each retina is exposed to slightly different images. This is known as retinal disparity. You can test this yourself. Hold your right thumb in front of your face and move it to the right. Close your left eye and view your thumb with only your right eye. Now, close your right eye and view your thumb with your left eye. Did you see a different image with each eye?
    Additional Material
     View the PDF transcript for  How We See
media/transcripts/SU_PSY3001_Sight.pdf
Page 1 of 1 SU_PSY3001_Cognitive © 2009 South University
How We See
The human eye is sensitive to wavelengths of light from 400–700 nm. This segment of visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes energy such as ultraviolet, infrared, and gamma rays. Different animals can see different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. For example, many insects can see ultraviolet light, while humans cannot.
For light energy to be processed by the human brain, it must first be changed into neuronal messages. This process is known as transduction.
Each sensory system has specific structures that complete the transduction process. In the eye, the photoreceptors (rods and cones) at the back of the retina accomplish this task.
Light energy is transduced into a neuronal signal in the rods and cones. After leaving the eye through the optic nerve, this neuronal information travels through the optic chiasm, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), and, finally, the primary visual cortex (PVC) (located in the occipital lobe of the brain). Various types of processes occur in the LGN, and several types of specialized cells and neurons reside in the PVC. The neurons in the PVC analyze color, line orientation, and retinal disparity (which contributes to depth perception), and some neurons appear to respond only to faces. In addition, there is a retinotopic map in the PVC, where regions of the retina have corresponding areas of analysis in the PVC. This neuronal information leaves the PVC and travels to various parts of the brain for further analysis and integration with other types of information. Several changes in vision take place due to the structure of the eye. One of these changes takes place every day around dusk. During the day, vision relies predominately on the cones. The cones allow us to see details in objects and help us perceive color. The cones are clustered in the center of the retina in an area known as the macula. In low-light conditions, the visual system shifts to relying on the rods, which allow us to see in our peripheral vision and which are sensitive to movement. However, the rods are not able to discern detail. They also require an adaptation period, which is why we cannot see well if suddenly exposed to darkness (for example, when walking into a movie theater). As the sun sets, we slowly shift to rod vision. During this shift, our visual acuity decreases and remains poor until we shift back to the cone system in high levels of light. A practical application of this shift is in driving. If you are driving at dusk, you may think you can see just as well as in full daylight but you cannot. Your vision is significantly impaired when driving in full darkness, too. Therefore, you should drive more slowly and cautiously at night.
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This assignment is related to the course material on States of Consciousness. ?You should review the textbook and lectures on t

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This assignment is related to the course material on States of Consciousness.  You should review the textbook and lectures on this topic before  beginning this assignment. You need to submit an original post and then  comment on two of your peers’ posts in order to earn credit for this assignment. Your original post should be a minimum of 250 words and each peer comment should be a minimum of 100 words. 
Choose  any movie (must be at least 1 hour long) that is about altered states  of consciousness. This can be about drugs, alcohol, sleep, dreams,  hypnosis, religious experiences (that alter consciousness) – anything  where altered consciousness is at the forefront of the film. Tip: If you can apply the assignment’s prompts to the movie, then it is an appropriate choice for this assignment! 
Some movie examples include (but are not limited to):
Trainspotting
Requiem for Dream
Icaros: A Vision
Dead Awake
Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
What the Bleep Do We Know?
DMT: The Spirt Molecule
Blow
Sleep Dealer
Huicholes: The Last Peyote Guardians
Documentaries on spiritual experiences or autobiographical films
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Research the literature and write a summary that speaks to the following elements to create an innovative and strategic assessm

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Research the literature and write a summary that speaks to the following elements to create an innovative and strategic assessment for a chosen healthcare setting:
Assess the external and internal environments using a systems-based perspective (SWOT, PEST, TOWS, or other analytic tool).
Synthesize environmental assessment information and propose where innovations are occurring or need to occur. Examples could include:
Electronic medical records.
mHealth/mobile apps.
New services using nanotechnology.
Electronic aspirin.
Google glass.
Robotics surgery.
Microchips.
3D printing.
Microfabrication and biological materials.
Optogenetics.
Assess organizational vision, mission, culture/values and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment. Examples could include:
Affordable care reimbursement.
Billing.
Universal coverage.
Integrate relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan.
Propose performance indicators and metrics for the organizational scorecard. Examples could include:
Improve quality of care.
Expand service lines.
Leverage social media for marketing competitive advantage.
InnovationandStrategicEnvironmentalAssessmentScoringGuide.pdf
1/19/22, 7:05 PM Innovation and Strategic Environmental Assessment Scoring Guide
https://courserooma.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/DHA/DHA8004/200701/Scoring_Guides/u02a1_scoring_guide.html 1/1
Innovation and Strategic Environmental Assessment Scoring Guide
Due Date: End of Unit 2 Percentage of Course Grade: 20%.
CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
Assess external and internal environments using a systems-based perspective.
20%
Does not assess external and internal environments using a systems-based perspective.
Assesses external or internal environment and/or uses a systems- based perspective, but does not include all components adequately.
Assesses external and internal environments using a systems based perspective.
Assesses external and internal environments using a systems-based perspective and uses professionally validated criteria to evaluate the evidence on which the assessment is based.
Propose an environmental assessment that will facilitate innovation opportunities.
20%
Does not propose an environmental assessment that will facilitate innovation opportunities.
Proposes an incomplete environmental assessment to facilitate innovation opportunities.
Proposes an environmental assessment that will facilitate innovation opportunities.
Proposes an environmental assessment that will facilitate innovation opportunities and cites credible literature for the framework utilized.
Assess organizational vision, mission, culture/values, and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment.
20%
Does not assess organizational vision, mission, culture/values, and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment.
Lacks a cohesive systemic way of assessing organizational vision, mission, culture/values, and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment.
Assesses organizational vision, mission, culture/values, and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment.
Assesses organizational vision, mission, culture/values, and strategic plan for gaps or misalignment with the external environment, and provides a new insight for improvement or innovation.
Integrate relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan.
20%
Does not integrate relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan.
Lacks systemic thinking, a strategic orientation, or has flawed logic when integrating relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan.
Integrates relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan.
Integrates relevant environmental changes into an organizational strategic plan and cites peer- reviewed best practices literature to identify the assumptions or biases of the plan.
Integrate environmental change into the organizational strategy by proposing performance indicators for the scorecard.
20%
Does not integrate environmental change into the organizational strategy by proposing performance indicators for the scorecard.
Either does not plausibly integrate environmental changes into the organizational strategy or does not propose relevant performance indicators for the scorecard.
Integrates environmental change into the organizational strategy by proposing performance indicators for the scorecard.
Integrates environmental change into the organizational strategy by proposing performance indicators and metrics for the scorecard.
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Reverse Timeline Once a child or adolescent engages in violent or aggressive behavior, the behavior is very difficult to change

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Assignment: Reverse Timeline
Once a child or adolescent engages in violent or aggressive behavior, the behavior is very difficult to change. This is partly because aggression often works as a strategy for children and adolescents to get what they want, and it is self-reinforcing. There are several evidence-based strategies for helping children and adolescents control themselves and refrain from violent or aggressive behavior. It is important to understand which strategy would be most effective given the needs of the children or adolescents, their culture, their situation, and the amount of support they may or may not receive from their parents or guardians. Consequently, one primary focus in working with parents of aggressive children or adolescents is to help them learn how to say “no” and to stay firm, despite their child’s or adolescent’s violent or aggressive behavior.
Something else to consider in treating violent or aggressive behavior is when interventions need to be implemented. As a child or adolescent grows up, there may be warning signs, such as subtle or overt behaviors that could ultimately lead to more severe violent or aggressive behaviors.
For this Assignment, review the multimedia program Aiden Carter Reverse Timeline. This is a case study of a young man named Aiden and how events in his life led to his aggressive behavior and his violent acts. Consider what possible interventions or strategies, if implemented at different points of his life, might have changed the course of events.
Disclaimer: Please note that the pictures and story of Aiden Carter depict graphic details of school violence that may be disturbing. Please consult your faculty if you experience trauma related to the media. If after consultation you feel you need further services, please contact the Walden Counseling Center.
The Assignment (2–3 pages):
Select one childhood age in Aiden’s timeline. Describe one intervention that, if implemented at that age, might have potentially changed the course of events and explain how.
Select one adolescent age in Aiden’s timeline. Describe one intervention that, if implemented at that age, might have potentially changed the course of events and explain how.
Describe two parent/guardian interventions that, if implemented, may have potentially changed the course of events and explain how.
Justify your choice of interventions using the week’s resources and the current literature.
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6681ff1c8f43be708065fa53a5aabc4a.pdf
Aiden_complete.mp4
Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis
Nikeea Copeland-Linder
Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Sharon F. Lambert
Department of Psychology, George Washington University
Nicholas S. Ialongo
Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N ¼ 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring, and parental involvement and to examine whether these profiles differentially predict adolescents’ depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Three classes were identified—a vulnerable class, a moderate risk=medium protection class, and a moderate risk=high protection class. The classes differentially predicted depressive symptoms but not aggressive behavior for boys and girls. The class with the highest community violence exposure also had the lowest self-worth.
Community violence has been recognized as a major public health problem impacting the lives of youth (U.S. Surgeon General, 2001). African American adoles- cents and youth who reside in urban areas are dispro- portionately affected by community violence as victims and witnesses (Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion, 2005; Crouch, Hanson, Saunders, Kilpatrick, & Resnick, 2000; Rennison, 1999). The most grave evidence of the toll that violence exposure is taking on
African American youth is that homicide continues to be the leading cause of death for youth ages 10 to 19 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). In addition to the risk of victimization, for many African American adolescents, as well as youth in urban areas, witnessing acts of violence is common. Some research indicates that between 50% and 96% of urban youth have witnessed community violence (Gorman-Smith, Henry, & Tolan, 2004). Among the urban youth in a study conducted by Miller, Wasserman, Neugebauer, Gorman-Smith, and Kamboukos (1999), 35% reported witnessing a stabbing, 33% had seen someone shot, and 23% had seen a dead body in their neighborhood.
Exposure to community violence as a victim or witness is associated with a number of emotional and behavioral problems including posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, suicidal behavior, antisocial behavior, social withdrawal, substance use, and academic problems (e.g., Cooley-Quille, Boyd, Franz, & Walsh, 2001; Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998; Lambert, Copeland-Linder, & Ialongo, 2008; Latzman
This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of
Mental Health (MH057005, P30MH066247: PI Ialongo; MH078995:
PI Lambert), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA011796: PI
Ialongo), and by Award Number P20MD000165 and 00198 from the
National Center On Minority Health And Health Disparities. The con-
tent is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily
represent the official views of the National Center on Minority Health
and Health Disparities or the National Institutes of Health. We thank
the youth, parents, and teachers who participated in this research. Correspondence should be addressed to Nikeea Copeland-Linder,
Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johns
Hopkins School of Medicine 200 North Wolfe Street, Suite 2027,
Baltimore, MD 21287. E-mail: [email protected]
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39(2), 176–186, 2010
Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1537-4416 print=1537-4424 online
DOI: 10.1080/15374410903532601
& Swisher, 2005). Despite the increased risk for these adverse outcomes, many youth are resilient in the face of community violence exposure (e.g., Gorman-Smith et al., 2004). However, compared to the growing body of research examining the effects of community risk on adolescent mental health, less is known about individual and family factors that protect youth who have been exposed to community violence. In particular, little is known about how community violence and individual and family protective factors interrelate. Guided by ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and a risk and resilience framework (e.g., Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005; Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990; Rutter, 1987), this study utilizes a person-centered analytic approach to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure, and individual and family protective factors to predict adolescent mental health.
ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND RISK AND RESILIENCE APPROACH
Ecological theories (e.g., Bronfenbrenner, 1979) acknowledge that youth are shaped by multiple processes that occur at various levels, including the microlevel or immediate environment (e.g., family, schools, community) and the macrolevel (e.g., societal and cultural contexts). Ecological theory has guided much of the research on community violence exposure, because it provides a framework for understanding how community violence, an environmental stressor, can impact individual development and well-being.
A risk and resilience approach also has been applied to research on community violence to help explain vari- ation in maladaptive as well as positive outcomes among youth (e.g., Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 2003). Resilience is defined as a process that involves positive adaptation despite exposure to adversity or significant stress (Luthar, 2000). In a risk and resilience framework, pro- tective factors are resources that promote resilience by reducing risk or by buffering the impact of stress on well-being. Protective factors fall into three domains: (a) individual characteristics, (b) family characteristics, and (c) community characteristics (e.g., Garmezy, 1991).
The protective factors examined in the present research focus on the first two domains. Self-perceptions are individual characteristics of particular relevance to adolescents given the importance of healthy identity development during this stage. Although there is evidence supporting the protective role of positive self- perceptions in promoting resilience (e.g., Levy, 1997), very little is known about the interrelationships among self-worth and community violence exposure. In addition, effective parenting can be particularly
protective in high-risk environments and parental strategies that are higher in control may be adaptive for urban African American adolescents in high risk environments (Cauce, Stewart, Rodriguez, Cochran, & Ginzler, 2003; Gonzales, Cauce, Friedman, & Mason, 1996; Mason, Cauce, Gonzales, & Hiraga, 1996). More research is needed to examine how positive self- perceptions ‘‘work together’’ (Kraemer, Stice, Kazdin, Offord, & Kupfer, 2001) with family protective factors to impact mental health outcomes of youth exposed to community violence.
THE MENTAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE
The deleterious effects of community violence have been well documented in studies showing its association with various mental health problems (e.g., Cooley-Quille et al., 2001; Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998; Lambert et al., 2008; Latzman & Swisher, 2005; Lynch, 2003; Lynch & Cicchetti, 1998). There is strong evidence that community violence is a predictor of aggressive behavior in youth (e.g., Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998; see Overstreet, 2000, for a review; Ozer, 2005). There are conflicting findings regarding the relationship between community violence and depressive symptomatology in the literature. Some cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reported positive associations between com- munity violence exposure and depressive symptoms (e.g., Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998), whereas other studies did not find a relationship (Cooley-Quille et al., 2001; Fitzpatrick, 1993).
INDIVIDUAL AND PARENTAL PROTECTIVE FACTORS
Self-Worth
Having a positive sense of self has been linked with resili- ence (e.g., Masten et al., 1990) and inversely related to youth engaging in risk behaviors including delinquency (Levy, 1997) and violent behavior (Paschall & Hubbard, 1998). High self-esteem and self-worth differentiated between youth who were resilient and those who were classified as ‘‘stress-affected’’ (Cowen et al., 1992; Cowen et al., 1997; Parker, Cowen, Work, & Wyman, 1990). Similarly, Dumont, and Provost (1999) classified adoles- cents into three groups (well adjusted, resilient, and vulnerable) based on depressive symptoms and frequency of stressors. Their results revealed that well- adjusted adolescents had higher self-esteem than adoles- cents in the two other groups, and resilient adolescents had higher self-esteem than vulnerable adolescents.
COMMUNITY VIOLENCE AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH 177
There is also some evidence that having a positive sense of self may moderate the impact of life stress on psychological functioning and risk behavior. Young- strom, Weist, and Albus (2003) found that self-concept moderated the effects of stress on internalizing symp- toms and the impact of cumulative risk (i.e., having a substance-abusing parent, grade repetition, receipt of public assistance, out-of-home placement) on externaliz- ing behavior problems among urban adolescents. Similarly, having positive self-views may protect youth from the effects of chronic environmental stressors (Li, Nussbaum, & Richards, 2007). For example, Li et al. found that having high levels of self-confidence buffered the negative impact of living in an impoverished community. Although positive self-perceptions did not appear to insulate youth from the negative consequences of violence exposure in the previously mentioned studies (Li et al., 2007; Youngstrom et al., 2003), both studies were limited by cross-sectional designs. More research is needed to understand how community violence exposure and positive self-perceptions interrelate to predict later outcomes.
Parental Monitoring and Involvement
For youth who reside in high-risk contexts, the role of parental factors may be particularly salient. Specifically, parental monitoring and parental involvement may be protective for adolescents who are exposed to com- munity violence. Youth who have parents who are involved and adequately monitor their actions may feel as if their parents are interested and concerned about them, and this may lead to increased self-worth and self-regulation, which are factors that may promote resilience. Empirical studies have been mixed concerning the protective role of parental monitoring and involve- ment in the context of community violence exposure. Pearce, Jones, Schwab-Stone, and Ruchkin (2003) found that parental involvement was associated with a decrease in conduct problems but did not buffer the impact of community violence on conduct problems among adolescents. Kliewer et al. (2006) found that par- ental monitoring decreased the impact of community violence exposure on adolescent substance use in a sam- ple of Central American adolescents. However, parental monitoring did not mitigate the effects of community violence exposure on depressive symptoms or aggressive behavior among a sample of African American and Latino boys (Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998). Other research suggests that parental monitoring is protective only for youth who are exposed to low levels of com- munity violence (Ceballo, Ramirez, Hearn, & Maltese, 2003; Sullivan, Kung, & Farrell, 2004). For example, Ceballo et al. examined the role of parental monitoring in buffering the effects of victimization and witnessing
violence among youth. Results revealed that greater parental monitoring was significantly related to lower depression and hopelessness scores in the low- victimization group. However, among children with the most victimization, monitoring had no significant impact on psychological well-being. More research is needed on the role of parental monitoring and involve- ment in relation to community violence. In particular, comparing subgroups of youth with varying levels of community violence and parental protective factors may help clarify for whom high levels of parental moni- toring and parental involvement are most protective.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNITY VIOLENCE EXPOSURE, PROTECTIVE FACTORS, AND YOUTH OUTCOMES
In general, males report more violence victimization as well as witnessing more violence than do females (e.g., Chen, 2009; Farrell & Bruce, 1997; Lambert, Ialongo, Boyd, & Cooley, 2005; Weist, Acosta, & Youngstrom, 2001). Some research indicates that the association between community violence exposure and mental health outcomes varies by gender (Chen, 2009; Farrell & Bruce, 1997). For example, Farrell and Bruce found that exposure to violence was related to subsequent changes in the frequency of aggressive behavior among girls but not boys in a sample of sixth graders. In addition, there may be gender differences in how com- munity violence exposure and protective factors work together to impact mental health, but there is a paucity of research examining this issue.
PERSON-CENTERED APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING RISK AND PROTECTIVE
FACTORS
The bulk of the research conducted on community violence has taken a variable-centered approach (e.g., Cooley-Quille et al., 2001; Gorman-Smith et al., 2004; Gorman-Smith & Tolan, 1998; Pearce et al., 2003), which focuses on relationships among variables as opposed to similarities and differences among subgroups of individuals. Although variable-centered approaches may provide valuable information on the relative importance of each risk and protective factor in predicting a specific outcome, Masten (2001) asserted that ‘‘this approach can fail to capture striking patterns in the lives of real people, losing a sense of the whole and overlooking distinctive regularities across dimensions that can indicate who is at greatest risk or needs a parti- cular intervention’’ (p. 229). Person-centered analyses may be more appropriate for understanding how risk
178 COPELAND-LINDER, LAMBERT, IALONGO
and protective factors co-occur and operate simultaneously, thus providing a more realistic analysis of how several risk and protective factors work together to impact mental health. According to Bowen, Lee, and Weller (2007) classifying youth into typologies of risk and protection can be important for guiding prevention and intervention programming. In particular, they con- tended that classifying youth according to typologies can facilitate decision making around who should be targeted for intervention. In addition, the typologies may help to determine which factors should be targeted in the context of limited resources, assist in establishing goals, and help decide which programs are most suitable for a particular group (Bowen et al., 2007).
Studies identifying typologies of youth based on both risk and protective factors among adolescents are parti- cularly rare. Bowen et al. (2007) classified children (third though fifth graders) based on risk and protective factors. They identified five profiles (high protection, moderate protection, moderate protection=peer risk, little protection=family risk, no protection=school risk) that were differentially associated with children’s well- being, social behavior, and academic performance. Solberg, Carlstrom, Howard, and Jones (2007) conduc- ted one of the few person-centered studies involving classifying youth into several academic risk categories based on exposure to violence and several protective factors. Using cluster analysis youth were classified into not at risk, moderately resilient, resilient, disengaged, vulnerable, and most vulnerable subgroups. Group membership was associated with academic stress, health status, end-of-semester grades, and retention in school. Although both the Bowen et al. and Solberg et al. studies contributed to the extant research in this area, they were limited by their cross-sectional designs. In addition, Bowen et al. defined risk and protection using opposing poles of the same measures, a practice that is at odds with researchers who argue that protective factors are distinct from risk factors and should not be viewed as simply the absence of risk factors (e.g., Rutter, 1987).
THE PRESENT STUDY
Guided by ecological theory and a risk and resilience framework, the present study examined interrelation- ships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health outcomes among urban adolescents. Specifically, the objectives of the present study were (a) to identify distinct profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, and individual (i.e., self-worth) and family (i.e., parental monitoring and involvement) protective factors, and (b) to examine whether these profiles of risk
and protection differentially predict adolescents’ depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. In addition, gender differences in the relationship between the profiles and outcomes were explored.
Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), a variant of Latent Class Analysis, was conducted to identify the profile structure of the participants. Specifically, this analytic strategy was used to identify distinct combinations of risk and protective factors experienced by the adoles- cents in the sample, as a means of understanding what combinations of risk and protective factors were asso- ciated with mental health adjustment. Because of the lack of prior studies examining interrelationships among community violence exposure, self-worth, and parental protective factors, we made no a priori hypotheses regarding the number of groups that would emerge. However, we expected that subgroups of youth who experienced less community violence exposure and higher levels of protective factors in the sixth grade would be less aggressive and report fewer symptoms of depression in the seventh grade than youth who experi- enced more community violence and had lower levels of protective factors. We also expected that the individual and family protective factors would be likely to cluster together such that youth high on parental protective factors also would be high on self-worth.
METHOD
Participants and Procedures
Participants were 504 sixth graders originally assessed in first grade as part of a longitudinal study examining the impact of two school-based, preventive intervention trials designed to reduce aggressive and disruptive beha- vior. Three first-grade classrooms in nine elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of two interven- tions (i.e., parent discipline focused intervention or a classroom behavior management intervention) or a con- trol condition. The interventions were conducted during the first grade. Participants were followed through high school (Ialongo et al., 1999). The Johns Hopkins University Committee on Human Research approved the study procedures.
Of the 678 children who participated in the inter- vention trial, 504 had written parental consent; had assented to participate; and had complete sixth-grade self-report data on community violence exposure, self- worth, and parental monitoring as well as parent reports of their involvement in the youths’ learning. In addition to the sixth-grade data just noted, self-report data on depressive symptoms and teacher report of aggressive behavior obtained from these youths’ seventh-grade assessment were also included in the present study.
COMMUNITY VIOLENCE AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH 179
The youth in this sample ranged in age from 10.59 to 12.60 (M ¼ 11.23) at the sixth-grade assessment, and 54% of the sample was male. The sample was approxi- mately 88% African American and 12% White, and 66% were of low socioeconomic status as indicated by receipt of free or reduced-price lunches. Chi-square tests showed that the 174 youth who did not provide complete information on all of the sixth-grade measures included in this study did not differ from the youth included in this study in terms of race, gender, inter- vention status, first-grade depressive symptoms, first- grade aggression, or socioeconomic status. Youth and teachers completed face-to-face interviews during the sixth-grade assessment, and parents completed a tele- phone interview (see Ialongo et al., 1999, for a detailed description of the methods).
Measures
Community violence exposure. Community violence exposure was assessed using items from the Children’s Report of Exposure to Violence (Cooley, Turner, & Beidel, 1995), which measures the frequency of exposure to community violence through witnessing, victimization, media, and hearing about violent events. The two subscales used in the present study assessed whether the adolescent had (a) witnessed violence or (b) been a victim of violence in the past year. The events assessed in the present study include being beaten up, robbed or mugged, or stabbed or shot; witnessing some- one else experience one of these events; or witnessing a murder in the community. Two dichotomous variables were created to indicate whether the youth had been a victim of violence or had witnessed violence in the past year. We chose to dichotomize the violence exposure measures because of highly skewed distributions for victimization and witnessing violence.
Self-worth. Self-worth was measured using the Harter Self-Perception Scale (Harter, 1985). This measure assesses the degree to which adolescents are happy with themselves. Higher scores indicate higher self-perception (five items, a ¼ .68).
Parental monitoring. The Structured Interview of Parent Management Skills and Practices–Youth Version (Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) was used to assess parental monitoring. Youth were asked to respond to a series of questions regarding their parents’ awareness of their daily activities (e.g., ‘‘How often do you check in with your parents or sitter after school?’’). Items were reverse coded such that higher scores indicate more parental monitoring (seven items, a ¼ .62).
Parental involvement. Parental involvement in child’s learning was used in the present analyses as a proxy for overall parental involvement. Parents were asked to respond to a series of questions regarding their involvement in their child’s academics (e.g., ‘‘How often do you go over your child’s homework?’’; five items, a ¼ .50).
Depressed mood. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the depressed mood subscale (21 items) of the Baltimore How I Feel (Ialongo, Kellam, & Poduska, 1999). Youth reported the frequency of depressive symptoms over the past 2 weeks on a 4-point scale from 1 (never) to 4 (most times), which was recoded such that items are scored 0 to 3 and a score of 0 indicates no symptoms. Items for this measure were generated from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) or drawn from existing child-report measures including the Children’s Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1983), the Depression Self-Rating Scale (Asarnow & Carlson, 1985), and the Hopelessness Scale for Children (Kazdin, Rodgers, & Colbus, 1986). Depressed mood scores were created by summing across the 21 items (a ¼ .83). In middle school, the Baltimore How I Feel Depression subscale was significantly asso- ciated with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children–IV (Shaffer, Fisher, Lucas, Dulcan, & Schwab-Stone, 2000).
Aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior was measured using the Aggressive=Disruptive subscale of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation– Revised (Werthamer-Larsson, Kellam, & Wheeler, 1991), a measure of each child’s adequacy of perform- ance on the core tasks in the classroom as defined by the teacher. Teachers reported on youths’ aggressive behavior using a 6-point scale. A summary aggression score was created by taking the mean of the five-item Aggressive=Disruptive subscale. Coefficient alpha for the Aggressive=Disruptive Behavior subscale was .88 in seventh grade. In terms of predictive validity, in Grades 1 to 5 the Aggressive=Disruptive Behavior sub- scale significantly predicted adjudication for a violent crime in adolescence and a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder at age 19 to 20 (Petras, Chilcoat, Leaf, Ialongo, & Kellam, 2004; Schaeffer, Petras, Ialongo, Poduska, & Kellam, 2003).
Analytic Strategy
LPA is a statistical technique that derives information about categorical latent variables based on the observed values of continuous manifest variables or indicators
180 COPELAND-LINDER, LAMBERT, IALONGO
(McCutcheon, 1987). A variant of Latent Class Analysis, LPA uses continuous rather than categorical indicators. Because LPA assumes that the indicator variables are explained by unobserved constructs, the technique fits latent profile models to the measured data. An advantage of LPA over other analytic strategies is that it allows for the aggregation of data across domains to generate classes of persons and link their class membership to outcomes.
Mplus statistical package (L. K. Muthén & Muthén, 1998–2007) was used for the LPA to determine the num- ber of profiles (i.e., classes) needed to best describe the association among the observed variables in the data. The first set of analyses determined the best and most parsimonious class solution (i.e., number of profiles) based on community violence exposure and protective factors assessed in the sixth grade. In the second set of analyses, the likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms or exhibiting aggressive behavior in seventh grade was modeled as a function of profile membership.
An advantage of LPA is that classes are identified through statistical model testing, rather than determined a priori. To determine the best-fitting model, models with increasing numbers of classes were compared. In LPA, different numbers of classes are not nested; therefore, to determine the most parsimonious and best-fitting model, several test statistics for nonnested models were used (Nylund, Asparouhov, & Muthén, 2006). The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC; Schwartz, 1978) and the sample-size adjusted BIC (SSABIC; Sclove, 1987) were used to guide selection of the optimal number of classes. Lower values on the BIC and SSABIC represent better fitting models. In addition, the Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio test (Lo, Mendell, & Rubin, 2001) and an adjusted version were used to compare models with k and k-1classes. A significant p value indicates that the estimated model is preferable to a model with one fewer class. Finally, although entropy is not a measure used for the selection of the number of classes, it provides a summary of the overall classification quality. Entropy values range from 0 to 1, with values closer to 1 indicating better classifica- tions of individuals to specific classes. Final model selec- tion was based on these criteria as well as consideration of whether additional trajectories were substantively meaningful (B. Muthén, 2003).
RESULTS
Descriptive Statistics
Means and standard deviations for study variables are presented in Table 1. Thirty-six percent of the sample reported witnessing community violence in the past
year, and 6% reported being victimized by violence in the past year. Correlations among study variables are presented in Table 2. Community violence victimization was negatively correlated with self-worth (r ¼ �.09, p < .05) and positively correlated with parental reports of involvement in child’s learning (r ¼ .11, p < .01). Witnessing community violence was negatively associa- ted with self-worth (r ¼ �.09, p < .05) and positively correlated with aggressive behavior (r ¼ .12, p < .01). Parental monitoring was positively correlated with self- worth (r ¼ .13, p < .01). Chi-square tests revealed that boys reported witnessing more community violence than girls, v2 ¼ 6.75, p < .05, and reported more victimization, v2 ¼ 9.67, p < .01, than girls. There were no gender dif- ferences in self-worth, parental monitoring, or parental involvement in child’s learning.
LPA
Model selection. LPA was conducted to determine the number of classes best represented by the data. Community violence exposure (both victimization and witnessing) as well as the three protective factors
TABLE 1
Descriptive Statistics for Variables in Sixth-Grade Profile and
Seventh-Grade Outcome Variables
M (SD) Range
Profile Variables
Community Violence Victimization (6th) .06 (0.23) 0–1
Community Violence Witnessing (6th) .36 (0.48) 0–1
Self-worth (6th) 3.64 (0.58) 1–5
Parental Monitoring (6th) 3.54 (0.64) 1–5
Parental Involvement (6th) 2.44 (0.61) 1–5
Outcome Variables
Depressed Mood (7th) .64 (0.45) 0–3
Aggression (7th) 1.70 (0.65) 1–6
TABLE 2
Correlations Among Study Variables
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. Community Violence
Victimization (6th)

2. Community Violence
Witnessing (6th)
.82�� —
3. Self-Worth (6th) –.09� –.09� — 4. Parental Monitoring
(6th)
–.05 .08 .13�� —
5. Parental
Involvement (6th)
.11�� .02 .06 –.07 —
6. Depressed Mood
(7th)
.01 .07 …
,
Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis
Nikeea Copeland-Linder
Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Sharon F. Lambert
Department of Psychology, George Washington University
Nicholas S. Ialongo
Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N ¼ 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring, and parental involvement and to examine whether these profiles differentially predict adolescents’ depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior. Three classes were identified—a vulnerable class, a moderate risk=medium protection class, and a moderate risk=high protection class. The classes differentially predicted depressive symptoms but not aggressive behavior for boys and girls. The class with the highest community violence exposure also had the lowest self-worth.
Community violence has been recognized as a major public health problem impacting the lives of youth (U.S. Surgeon General, 2001). African American adoles- cents and youth who reside in urban areas are dispro- portionately affected by community violence as victims and witnesses (Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion, 2005; Crouch, Hanson, Saunders, Kilpatrick, & Resnick, 2000; Rennison, 1999). The most grave evidence of the toll that
The post Reverse Timeline Once a child or adolescent engages in violent or aggressive behavior, the behavior is very difficult to change appeared first on Wridemy. Visit us here Wridemy for plagiarism free papers.The post Reverse Timeline Once a child or adolescent engages in violent or aggressive behavior, the behavior is very difficult to change first appeared on.

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Article: Thriving in a Multicultural Classroom by Michelle R. Dunlap

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9302Journal Entry 1 Due 1/22
Section 2: Understanding the Primary Dimensions of Diversity: Race and Ethnicity
Article: Thriving in a Multicultural Classroom by Michelle R. Dunlap
After reading the article and completing the 5 discussion questions;
What emotions do you have about race and ethnicity? How do you feel about racial identity development? What questions do you have? How can this experience help you in the workplace? How can this experience help you in your personal life?
Instructions
1. Write a personal reflection using the questions above as a guide. ( 1 -2 paragraphs)The post Article: Thriving in a Multicultural Classroom by Michelle R. Dunlap first appeared on.

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